A goal of Healthy People 2020 Discussion
A goal of Healthy People 2020 is to “Achieve health equity, eliminate disparities, and improve the health of all groups.” Read more on disparities .
The U.S. Health and Human Services Department focuses on six health outcomes to assess health disparities in the U.S. Choose one of these health outcomes: infant mortality, cancer screening and management, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, immunizations. Discuss the determinants associated with a positive or negative outcome. What are the specific health disparities that exist? Use rates to show the difference between the populations from primary sources. Include at least one peer-reviewed journal article on the health determinants you identify.
No topics can be duplicated. Once a classmate has posted their essay on the topic, that topic is off the table. You must find a different topic to write about in your discussion board essay.
Sources of Epidemiologic Data There are many sources of epidemiologic / public health data available via online databases. Your task this week is to explore some of these resources and learn how to generate/access data. Go to the websites below and explore the following systems: WISQARS (Web-based Injury Statistics Query and Reporting System)|Injury Center|CDC (Use Data VIsualization tool)
Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program (cancer.gov) (Use SEER*Explorer Application)
CDC – BRFSS (Use a tool in Prevalence Data & Data Analysis Tools) 1) Select one of the systems above for your post. 2) Briefly describe the purpose of the system and how the data in the system is obtained. 3) Identify a disease or health issue of interest to you – then, query the system and generate a report/data related to this issue. You must be able to produce an original figure using the tools given on the website. 4) Summarize and explain in epidemiological terms, what you queried, and what your results indicate. 5) Include a graph or figure that you generated from the system. Make sure to address all parts of the assignment.
Discuss the different types of epidemiological study designs. Which study design provides the highest quality of evidence and which is the lowest? Also, discuss the difference between correlation and causation. How can a study show causation?
Prevention of disease is the major focus of public health. One way to prevent disease is screening for disease. Disease screening can reduce morbidity and mortality as well as transmission of the disease to others. However, a lot of research and costs are associated with disease screening. Are all screening methods created equal?
This week you will choose a screening method for a disease (infectious or chronic) and evaluate it. Do not repeat screening methods that another student has posted. Discuss the following:
1) Describe the health issue in detail. Who does the health issue affect and what is the magnitude of the health issue?
2) Describe the current or proposed screening method for this disease. What is the biological basis for this screen meaning how does it detect the disease? What markers are used or what scale is used? What stage in the disease can the screen be used? Is it a mass screen or selective screening?
3) Describe the characteristics of the screen. How does it compare to the 5 attributes of a good screening test: simple, rapid, inexpensive, safe, and acceptable?
4) Evaluate the screening method. Discuss the reliability, validity, sensitivity, and specificity or the screen. Give data to support your discussion.
There are many subfields within epidemiology. This week you will choose one field to investigate further. Choose one of the three topics below to discuss. Occupational and Environmental Epidemiology and Genetic Epidemiology are complex topics that are not as obvious as other health issues when conducting epidemiological studies. Most of the time experimental studies are not able to be used to determine causation as you cannot change the genetics of a person or intentionally expose people to potentially harmful conditions. So, how are associations determined?
Environmental Epidemiology. Find an epidemiological study that looks at health effects associated with a type of environmental pollutant. What are the end points of this study? What are advantages and disadvantages of this endpoint(s)? What are challenges in assessing exposure to this pollutant? Properly cite and attach the article as a PDF to your post.
Genetic Epidemiology. Choose a disease with a known genetic component (ex. breast cancer, colorectal cancer, Alzheimer’s disease). Identify the mode of inheritance for this disease. Discuss what the proposed gene function is that causes the disease. Are there other possible hypotheses for the cause of this disease? Find a study that looks at the association between genetics and the disease and discuss the findings. Properly cite and attach the articles as a PDF to your post.
Go to the Healthy People 2020 Social Determinants of Health Topics page.
1) Select the objectives and scroll through the objectives. Choose one to discuss. How does this social determinant relate to health outcomes? What specific diseases are influenced by this determinant?
2) Select the objective and access the data on that objective. Share the data that is collected and discuss what it means and how it is related to health outcomes.
3) After selecting the objective, go to the section on more information. Select “Related Research Articles on PubMed” Choose an article to further discuss the current research on this topic. Properly cite and attach the PDF to your post.
In a mass casualty situation due to chemical, biological, radiological, or nuclear (CBRN) events, triage is absolutely required for categorizing the casualties in accordance with medical care priorities. Dealing with a CBRN event always starts at the local level. Even before the detection and analysis of agents can be undertaken, zoning, triage, decontamination, and treatment should be initiated promptly.
According to Jagminas (2015), emergency departments (EDs) and emergency medical services (EMS) are responsible for managing potential chemical disasters, whether they result from industrial accidents or terrorist activities. In recognition of this responsibility, The Joint Commission (TCJ) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) require EDs to prepare for hazardous material incidents.
In treating patients with chemical exposures, decontamination is of primary importance provided the patient does not require immediate life-saving interventions. Any plan must include contingencies for contamination sources within the hospital and for ED evacuation. The determination of a workable hazardous materials plan requires careful thought and often professional input from medical toxicologists, hazardous materials teams, and industrial hygiene and safety officers. Using a patient decontamination plan implemented without specific adaptation to the hospital and without practice can result in undesirable outcomes.
Select a real-life scenario such as the Japan Earthquake and Nuclear disaster, which challenged hospital decontamination program. Discuss whether your local community is prepared for such a situation and whether the required resources are available to manage a major disaster.
Jagminas, L. (2015). CBRNE – Chemical Decontamination. Medscape. Retrieved on 19 Aug 2017 from MedSpace.