Camorra the Criminal Underworld Assignment
PIAZZA DEL PLEBISCITO
One of Italy’s oldest game
Bartolomeo Pinelli, Morra game in Rome, 1781- 1835
Naples capital of Kingdom of Two Sicilies
One of the European cities with largest number of inhabitants for more than 3 centuries
Masses of impoverished and unemployed people vs nobles and clericals
1789 French Revolution = 1799 Neapolitan Republic (failed). Lack of power followed.
Camorra emerged in this lack of power between 1799-1815 before Borbone restoration
PAOLO ALBERTIS, FERDINANDO I ENTRANCE IN NAPLES IN 1815, NAPLES PALAZZO REALE MUSEUM
REASONS BEHIND CAMORRA IN NAPLES
Guappo illustration, 1853-1858
Lyrics: Libero Bovio; music: Rodolfo Falvo
A famous “guappo” has lost his honor of “malavita man” for the love of a woman (Margherita)
One of most famous Neapolitan Songs
MARIO MEROLA, IN THE MOVIE “GUAPPARIA”, 1984
List of songs inspired by Camorra
Theatre drama with songs
Developed in 1920s-1940s
The story told in a famous song becomes a drama.
Audience identifies with main characters on stage, who represents principal feelings
Characters: • Isso (Him): the positive hero, family man • Essa (Her): object of desire, weak, surrendering to villain’s courtship • O’ Malamente (villain): the “guappo”, or a coward. Love, betrayal, honor, family links, sometimes criminal life. The end sees the fight between Isso and O’ Malamente. The positive hero wins.
Plot: after years in jail the hero comes home and discovers that his wife betrayed him with another (the villain). The hero fights for revenge, obtaining the community’s respect back.
Mario Merola traditional sceneggiata 1973:
MANETTI BROS, AMORE E MALAVITA, 2017
SCENEGGIATA NEAPOLITAN MEOLODRAMA
Cigarets contraband (cigaret sales were Italian State Monopoly: taxes on retail price)
Cigarettes contraband in 1970s: movies and documentaries
Other camorra’s business:
Imposition of retail prices on agricultural products
YESTERDAY, TODAY, TOMORROW, 1963 MOVIE BY VITTORIO DE SICA
CAMORRA’S BUSINESS AFTER THE WAR
Raffaele Cutolo – O’ Professore: (The Professor: when he was first in jail, he was the only one who could read and write).
Most of the time in jail. He controlled everything from there.
Organized the scattered groups into one organizations with a pyramid structure with a vertex. Control over the whole territory of Naples and outside the city. Exchange of favors.
Over 2000 members
1979-1983 War against those who refused to join the new organization. Killings and violence in Naples.
1980 Earthquake in Naples: reconstruction funds controlled by Cutolo and his affiliates
1983: Cutolo and over 450 members are arrested, more 400 others are under arrest warrant. It’s the end of NCO.
He died in 2021