Coordinate Compensation and Benefits Activities of An Organization
administrative information Job title: records Clerk department: loan operations reports to: loan operation manager Job number: 11
date of Job analysis January 21, 2015
expiration date January 2018
Job Summary returns all consumer paid loan documents to customers. Supervises the daily activities of two clerks.
essential functions Performed receives monthly files for accounts that have been paid in full and require the return of contracts, mortgage documents, auto titles, and other documents. answers telephone and e-mail inquiries from customers or loan officers concerning documents. maintains file on temporary automobile titles until permanent title is received. files permanent automobile titles, contracts, mortgage documents, and other documents in customer files on a daily basis. Supervises two file clerks who maintain correspondence and other general files. Performs file clerk duties as needed. Performs other duties, as required, on a temporary basis, to maintain section or depart- mental operations and services.
Job Specifications education high school diploma preferred, but not required experience Six months or more in a financial institution and familiarity with various loan documents Skills required Working knowledge of microsoft Word and excel ability to enter data at a rate of 35 words per minute
Figure 4-6 Job description/ Specification example
98 Part 2 • Staffing
their occupational definition. To facilitate classification, detailed occupations are combined to form 461 broad occupations, 97 minor groups, and 23 major groups. Detailed occupations in the SOC with similar job duties, and in some cases skills, education, or training, are grouped together. The federal government updates job descriptions for all U.S. workers every 10 years. The 2010 SOC replaced the 2000 system. The SOC’s substantive structural changes are based on actual changes in the nature or organization of work activities being performed in the economy. The update also provides an opportunity for professional organizations and labor groups to seek recognition or a higher profile for their members’ occupations by gaining a separate listing or reclassification. Most current occupations will be unaffected except perhaps for a change in the description’s wording. Some representative SOC descriptions for HR professionals may be seen in Table 4-3.29
The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) The Occupational Information Network (O*NET) is a comprehensive database of worker attributes and job characteristics, which is administered by the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration and developed in collaboration with a variety of private and public companies. It is the nation’s primary source of occupational information. It is a flexible, easy-to-use database system that provides a common language for defining and describing occupations. Its flexible design also captures rapidly changing job requirements. It provides the essential foundation for facilitating career counseling, education, employment, and training activities by containing information about knowledge, skills, abilities; interests; general work activities; and work context.30 Portions of the information included in an O*NET descrip- tion for a Human Resources Specialist may be seen in Table 4-4.
job analysis for team Members Historically, companies have established permanent jobs and filled these jobs with people who best fit the job description. The jobs then continued in effect for years to come. In many firms today, people are being hired as team members. Whenever someone asks a team member, “What
- Web Wisdom
Standard Occupational Classification (SOC) http://www.bls.gov/soc/2010/ soc_alph.htm
Provides an alphabetical list of SOC occupations.
- Web Wisdom
O*NET Online http://www.onetonline.org/
O*NET Online has detailed descriptions of the world of work for use by job seekers, workforce development and HR professionals, students, researchers, and more!
Summarize job analysis for team members.
representative SOc descriptions for hr. Professionals
13-1071 Human Resources Specialists
Perform activities in the human resource area. Includes employment specialists who screen, recruit, interview, and place workers. Excludes “Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists” (13-1141) and “Training and Development Specialists” (13-1151).
Illustrative examples: Staffing Coordinator, Personnel Recruiter, Human Resources Generalist
11-3111 Compensation and Benefits Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate compensation and benefits activities of an organization. Job analysis and position description managers are included in “Human Resource Managers” (11-3121).
Illustrative examples: Wage and Salary Administrator, Employee Benefits Director, Compensation Director
13-1141 Compensation, Benefits, and Job Analysis Specialists
Conduct programs of compensation and benefits and job analysis for employer. May specialize in specific areas, such as position classification and pension programs.
Illustrative examples: Employee Benefits Specialist, Retirement Plan Specialist, Job Analyst
11-3131 Training and Development Managers
Plan, direct, or coordinate the training and development activities and staff of an organization.
Illustrative examples: Labor Training Manager, Employee Development Director, E-Learning Manager
17-2111 Health and Safety Engineers, Except Mining Safety Engineers and Inspectors
Promote worksite or product safety by applying knowledge of industrial processes, mechanics, chemistry, psychology, and industrial health and safety laws. Includes industrial product safety engineers.
Illustrative examples: Product Safety Engineer, Fire Protection Engineer, Industrial Safety Engineer
ChaPter 4 • StrategiC Planning, human reSourCe Planning, and Job analySiS 99
is your job description?” the reply might well be “Whatever.” What this means is that if a project has to be completed, individuals do what has to be done to complete the task.
With team design, there are no narrow job descriptions. Today, the work that departments do is often bundled into teams. The members of these teams have a far greater depth and breadth of skills than would have been required in traditional jobs. Formerly, there might have been 100 separate job classifications in a facility. With team design, there may be just 10 or fewer broadly defined roles of teams. Another dimension is added to job analysis when teams are considered: Job analysis may determine how important it is for employees to be team players and work well in group situations.
Jobs are changing by getting bigger and more complex. The last duty shown on the job descrip- tion, “And any other duty that may be assigned,” is increasingly becoming the job description. This enlarged, flexible, complex job changes the way many tasks are performed. Managers cannot sim- ply look for individuals who possess narrow job skills. They must go deeper and seek competen- cies, intelligence, ability to adjust, and ability and willingness to work in teams. Today more than ever, people go from project to project and from team to team. Job definitions become blurred, and titles become almost meaningless as job descriptions have become even more all-encompassing. Basically, what matters is what you know and how well you apply it to the business.
human resources Specialist
Prepare or maintain employment records related to events such as hiring, termination, leaves, transfers, or promotions, using human resources management system software.
Interpret and explain human resources policies, procedures, laws, standards, or regulations.
Hire employees and process hiring-related paperwork.
Inform job applicants of details such as duties and responsibilities, compensation, benefits, schedules, working conditions, or promotion opportunities.
Address employee relations issues, such as harassment allegations, work complaints, or other employee concerns.
Maintain current knowledge of Equal Employment Opportunity (EEO) and affirmative action guidelines and laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).
Personnel and Human Resources—Knowledge of principles and procedures for personnel recruit- ment, selection, training, compensation and benefits, labor relations and negotiation, and personnel information systems.
English Language—Knowledge of the structure and content of the English language including the meaning and spelling of words, rules of composition, and grammar.
Clerical—Knowledge of administrative and clerical procedures and systems such as word processing, managing files and records, stenography and transcription, designing forms, and other office procedures and terminology.
Administration and Management—Knowledge of business and management principles involved in strategic planning, resource allocation, human resources modeling, leadership technique, production methods, and coordination of people and resources.
Active Listening—Giving full attention to what other people are saying, taking time to understand the points being made, asking questions as appropriate, and not interrupting at inappropriate times.
Speaking—Talking to others to convey information effectively.
Reading Comprehension—Understanding written sentences and paragraphs in work related documents.
Oral Comprehension—The ability to listen to and understand information and ideas presented through spoken words and sentences.
Oral Expression—The ability to communicate information and ideas in speaking so others will understand.
Written Comprehension—The ability to read and understand information and ideas presented in writing.
100 Part 2 • Staffing
job analysis and the Law Effective job analysis is essential to sound HR management as an organization recruits, selects, and promotes employees. Although the law does not require that companies use job analysis, successful defense against claims of alleged violations of the following laws may depend on the appropriate use of job analysis:
- Fair Labor Standards Act: Employees are categorized as exempt or nonexempt, and job anal- ysis is basic to this determination. Nonexempt workers must be paid time and a half when they work more than 40 hours per week. Overtime pay is not required for exempt employees.
- Equal Pay Act: If jobs are not substantially different, employees performing them must receive similar pay. When pay differences exist, job descriptions can be used to show whether jobs are substantially equal in terms of skill, effort, responsibility, and working conditions.
- Civil Rights Act: HR management has focused on job analysis because selection methods need to be clearly job related. Job descriptions may provide the basis for an equitable compensation system and an adequate defense against unfair discrimination charges in initial selection, promotion, and all other areas of HR administration. When job analysis is not performed, defending certain qualifications established for the job is usually difficult. In the Griggs v. Duke Power Company case, the company stated that supervisors must have a high school diploma. However, the company could show no business necessity for this standard. Placing a selection standard in the job specification without having deter- mined its necessity through job analysis makes the firm vulnerable in discrimination suits.
- Occupational Safety and Health Act: Job descriptions are required to specify elements of the job that endanger health or are considered unsatisfactory or distasteful by the majority of the population. Showing the job description to the employee in advance is a good defense.
- Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)/ADA Amendments Act: Employers are required to make reasonable accommodations for workers with disabilities who are able to perform the essential functions of a job and job analysis is needed to obtain this information. Key elements used to determine essential functions include physical skills, mental skills, job duties, and behavioral skills.31 The EEOC defines reasonable accommodation as any modification or adjustment to a job, an employment practice, or the work environment that makes it possible for an individual with a disability to enjoy an equal employment opportunity. The ADA Amendments Act expands the definition of “disability” and many more applicants and employees are eligible for reasonable accommodations. Certainly stating that every task in a job is essential sends a red flag to the EEOC.32
Competencies and Competency Modeling The term competency has become an increasingly important topic in HR practice because of the changing nature of work. Competencies build on the use of knowledge, skills, and abilities, which we describe with job analysis, to describe work. Competencies refer to an individual’s capability to orchestrate and apply combinations of knowledge, skills, and abilities consistently over time to perform work successfully in the required work situations. Traditionally, as we have seen, work has been described by many dimensions including knowledge, skills, and abilities. Indeed, although this is largely still the case, HR professionals have embraced the ideas of com- petencies as the field has increasingly taken on strategic importance.
Oftentimes, HR professionals’ identification of competencies is derived from an analysis of the overall strategic statements of companies. For example, GE emphasizes three strategic goals for corporate growth: Globalization, Product Services, and Six Sigma (quality improvement). GE’s top management relies on four core competencies to drive business success, which they call the four “Es”: high Energy, the ability to Energize others, Edge (i.e., the ability to make tough calls), and Execute (i.e., the ability to turn vision into results).
Apart from the work of many private consulting firms, the U.S. Department of Labor’s Employment and Training Administration developed a framework for describing competencies and for building competency models. Competency modeling specifies and defines all the competencies necessary for success in a group of jobs that are set within an industry context. Figure 4-7 shows the basic framework for the Department of Labor’s competency model structure. According to the U.S. Department of Labor: