Explanation of HIV PICOT Question
Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is a global pandemic that has affected almost forty million people across the world. It poses a significant threat to healthcare, morbidity, and mortality, given its continued spread and the unavailability of a cure and or vaccine to prevent it.
Healthcare organizations enhance the outcomes of HIV and minimize the incidence of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) by treating patients using various antiretroviral drugs.
Through research, medical practitioners have been able to establish that positive patient outcomes in fighting HIV can potentially get achieved by implementing Undetectable=Untransmittable (U=U).
Educating HIV patients and patients that participate in risky sexual behavior on U=U and how it relates to medication compliance and preventing the spread of HIV helps to increase awareness and prevent and or decrease the spread of the disease. When patients are adherent with antiretroviral therapy, their viral load can become undetectable, making it possible for them to live healthy sexual lives without stigma and fear (Eisinger et al., 2019).
PICOT question: In HIV positive patients and or patients that are high risk, would in-depth sessions for education/counseling with the nurse practitioner regarding U=U (Undetectable=Untransmittable) lead to an increase in self-reported disclosure of HIV status and adherence to medication compared to patients who only receive information that is written over a three months period? This paper seeks to address the problem in this question concerning the various aspects of care and prevention.
Significant advances in research on establishing possible treatment for HIV to eliminate its spread has been made. It began with the discovery of antiretroviral drugs and how they affect the virus. In recent years, a body of clinical evidence that has firmly established that the concept of Undetectable=Untransmittable (U=U) is sound and proven by science.
The evidence gathered by the clinicians establishes that the level of HIV in the body, aka viral load, is the primary factor in transmitting the disease. Patients can become undetectable if adherent to ART (National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, n.a). Evidence proves when the viral load is undetectable; then the patient cannot spread HIV to their sexual partner. The HPTN 052 study also conclusively established that HIV cannot be transmitted sexually when the virus has been suppressed by ART.
The U=U campaign is aimed at reducing the spread of HIV and to minimize the stigma, public perception, and prevention of new infections. U=U treatment as a preventative initiative was implemented by nurse practitioners within the community health setting to increase disclosure, awareness, medication compliance, and to decrease fear, shame, new transmissions, and the stigma associated with HIV.
The intervention is aimed at creating a transformation in the sexual, social, and the reproductive lives of individuals that have HIV in that they can be able to get into relationships without the fear of spreading HIV to their partners. The U=U campaign has managed to get to 79 countries across the world, leading to significant improvements in the outcomes of care for patients with HIV.
The care of patients that have HIV has been improved significantly since the launch of the U=U campaign as it has become a global initiative. According to the National Institute of Health, the campaign has enhanced the care of patients. It was found that when people are educated on U=U; they were more likely to go for HIV testing and get started on treatment.
Those that are on medication ensure that they stay on medication so that their viral load levels can become undetectable too (National Institutes of Health). U=U has created hope for HIV patients leading to significant improvements in outcomes of care as more patients are ensuring that they stay on medication. Additionally, it has also changed the way policymakers, healthcare professionals, employers, and the perception people may have about patients that have HIV.
Health care agency
Preventing HIV/AIDS using the U=U campaign is relevant to the community health setting. The nurse practitioners can achieve quality outcomes by implementing the use of patient engagement along with education as the patients are encouraged to learn their HIV status and begin treatment or initiate treatment and remain compliant.
This is based on the fact that the nurses can establish a relationship that is trusting, open, and honest with their patients while being supportive and knowledgeable (Obiri-Yeboah et al., 2016). Healthcare organizations can achieve outcomes that are positive in care, thus improving the performance of the organization as a whole.
The U=U Campaign has enhanced the practice of nursing as the nursing practitioners can achieve quality health outcomes, decrease the morbidity and mortality of patients with HIV while informing and educating the community at large. The ability of patients to disclose their HIV status has been significantly enhanced in healthcare, making it possible for nurse practitioners to carry out their duties in care provision effectively.
The practice of nursing has become more active and patient-centered as it relates to patients that have HIV. The nurse can implement a practical plan of care that encourages the patients’ effort and cooperation when it comes to the use of ART to improve their health by remaining med compliant, practicing safe sex, and having a clear understanding of the disease and how it affects the body.
Eisinger, R. W., Dieffenbach, C. W., & Fauci, A. S. (2019). HIV viral load and transmissibility of HIV infection: undetectable equals untransmittable. Jama, 321(5), 451-452.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. HIV Undetectable=Untransmittable (U=U), or Treatment as Prevention. Retrieved from https://www.niaid.nih.gov/diseases-conditions/treatment-prevention
National Institutes of Health. Why Is U=U a Game Changer? Retrieved from https://www.oar.nih.gov/about/directors-corner/why-is-u-equals-u-game-changer
Obiri-Yeboah, D., Amoako-Sakyi, D., Baidoo, I., Adu-Oppong, A., & Rheinländer, T. (2016). The ‘fears’ of disclosing HIV status to sexual partners: a mixed-methods study in a counseling setting in Ghana. AIDS and Behavior, 20(1), 126-136.