HIST 200 at Buffalo Environmental History Questions
After reading McNeill’s Preface and Chapter 1 and Lecture 1: Easter Island and Lecture 2: 1491 answer the questions below.. The number (in parenthesis) before the question number indicates how many points each question is worth – for a total of 135 points.
(8) 1. What does McNeill’s title “Something New Under the Sun” refer to? What is this “new” thing under the sun – new in the 20th Century (1900’s)?
(8) 2. WHAT DOES McNeill say (QUOTE him and give a Page Number) that leads you to believe this is what he means by “something new under the sun”? Be sure to choose a quote that explains what is new in the 20th century, do not choose an expression, metaphor or other vague quote. Your quote can be 1-3 sentences long.
(8) 3. Do you agree that this is new AND why or why not?
McNeill and Lecture 1
(15) 4. How is modern 20th century man on Earth different from what occurred on Easter Island? Be very specific! When comparing two things be sure to describe each of the two things and explain why this is a difference. Your answer should be at least 3 sentences long and include specific examples.
(15) 5. How is modern 20th century man on Earth similar to what occurred on Easter Island? Be very specific! When comparing two things be sure to describe each of the two things and explain why this is a similarity. Your answer should be at least 3 sentences long and include specific examples.
(15) 6. If the people on Easter Island had recognized the effects of their actions on their environment early enough, what could they have done differently/what changes could they have made to their culture and behaviors to make life on the island sustainable? Try to think of 3 changes, one each related to shelter, food, and culture. Be specific. Your answer should be at least 3 sentences long.
Lecture #2: 1491
What are Primary and Secondary Sources?Primary sources: materials that were created at the time the event occurred or materials created by those who experienced the event. These materials include letters, speeches, diaries, newspaper articles from the time period, interviews with people who were around when the event occurred, documents, photographs, and artifacts such as tools, weapons, clothing from the time period.Secondary sources: materials that were created after the event. These materials might tell you about an event, person, time or place, but they were created by someone not from the time period. Secondary sources can include history books, school textbooks, encyclopedias, History magazines, websites, and documentaries.
Are the following primary or secondary sources? Highlight or underline the correct answer (or delete the incorrect answer)
(5) 7. A biography of Theodore Roosevelt written in 2001 Primary Secondary
(5) 8. An autobiography written by Benjamin FranklinPrimarySecondary
(5) 9. Photographs of Civil War soldiers in their campPrimary Secondary
(5) 10. Letters written by Abraham LincolnPrimary Secondary
(5) 11. A documentary on PBS about World War IIPrimary Secondary
*** Historians write about history based on both primary sources and secondary sources. “For example, a textbook on early American history written in 1980 can be regarded as a primary source for historians’ attitudes in 1980 as well as a secondary source on the colonists’ attitudes in 1774.” (From The Nature of History Reader, edited by Jenkins, K. and Munslow, A. , 2004)
(8) 12. Using the example above, (***) what would be a primary source for colonists’ attitudes in 1774? (You can make up a realistic example; you do not have to identify an actual existing example.)
(8) 13. Now consider Lecture #2/ the 1491 article by Charles Mann. (Like a Club Between the Eyes – page 2) What would be an example of a primary source for life in the Plymouth Colony? Why is that a primary source?
(8) 14. What would be a secondary source for life in the Plymouth Colony? (You can choose one from the 1491 article, or find one online, or describe a general kind of secondary source)
(4) 15. In the 1491 article, in the “Novel Shores” section, Charles Kay, a wildlife biologist, tells us that the keystone species of American ecosystems was what species?
(5) 16. How does Harvard biologist Edward O. Wilson define a keystone species? (You can quote so long as you use “quotation marks”)
(8) 17. What 4 other species increased or exploded in population when the American keystone species was removed/drastically reduced?