How the Leaders Involve Others in A Common Vision
Challenge the Process. Leaders look for innovative ways to improve the organization
and potentially take risks and they accept the inevitable disappointments as learning
How does the leader identify opportunities for innovation?
How does the leader engage team members in identifying innovation?
How does the leader implement methods such that learning can occur from the
mistakes resulting from risk taking particularly when dealing with innovation?
Enable Others to Act. Leaders foster collaboration and strengthen others, making
each person feel capable and powerful.
How does the leader build supportive working relationships with team members?
How does the leader develop working relationships among team members?
How does the leader develop competence and confidence in team members?
Encourage the Heart. Accomplishing extraordinary things in organizations leaders
recognize contributions that individuals make and share in the rewards of their
How does the leader measure progress towards the meeting of goals?
How does the leader recognize individuals for their contributions?
How does the leader celebrate team accomplishments?
What have you learned thus far? What aspects of the interview process were most
What aspects of leadership did the leader find most challenging?
What did you find most surprising about the leader?
What did you learn from Modeling the Way?
What did you learn from Inspiring a Shared Vision?
What did you learn from Challenging the Process?
What did you learn from Enabling Others to Act?
What did you learn from Encouraging the Heart?
How has your idea of leadership changed?
What do you see as your strengths as a leader?
What do you think you need to improve your leadership skills?
Do you feel you can demonstrate an understanding and application of the five
practices as they relate to leadership? Rate your commitment from 0 to 100, 0 being
totally uncommitted, and 100 being totally committed to the endeavor.
Whole Task Objectives Follow-up
How would you relate the concept of interviewing to that of communication?
Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, B. Z. (2003) The leadership challenge workbook. San
Kouzes, J. M., and Posner, B. Z. (2009) Five Practices of Exemplary Leadership. In The
Leadership Challenge. Retrieved Feb 1, 2009, from
- Building a Social Support System
Address any issues from prior session.
Review the concept of a social support system.
Each of us needs a strong social support system. Historically, such support systems
were necessary to ensure our physical survival. Today, we understand that social
systems are required for psychological survival, as well.
Some people in our social support systems may have significant roles in our lives,
while others may have more limited roles. We may have people at work or school who
are supportive of our endeavors in that environment, but who have no contact with us
outside of those situations. We may have people that can offer us advice about certain
topics (e.g., money, medical), but may not be able to offer us advice in other areas. It is
important to remember that we may also play any of a variety of roles in other
people’s social networks. Taken alone, the contribution of a single individual to our
social support system may not seem essential to our physiological and psychological
wellbeing. Taken together, however, the contributions of all of the individuals who
form our social support networks are invaluable to physiological and psychological
wellbeing and the development of resilient attitudes.
One of the most significant factors in promoting resilient attitudes is the
establishment and maintenance of a good support system. Not only are social
support systems a source of strength, but they also provide us an opportunity to offer
support and encouragement to others. Individuals struggling with the symptoms of
PTSD often engage in avoidant behaviors; unchecked avoidance comes at the risk of
social isolation and the breakdown of support networks. Victims of PTSD may see the
dissolution of social support networks as inevitable, but PTSD survivors understand
that there are concrete steps that they can take to build and strengthen their social
Call it a clan, call it a network, call it a tribe, call it a family. Whatever you call it, whoever you are, you need one. — Jane Howard
Effective communication considers empathy and listening skills. The ability to
empathize with the individual or people that we are communicating does not require
agreement with another person’s point of view. Rather, empathy entails
understanding another person’s perspective.
If we want others to listen to us, we must first learn to listen to others. Effective
listeners make good communicators because they are aware of what their audience
wants and needs from them. They hear and understand their audience, not just the
words, but the message behind the words.
How satisfied am I with my current social support system? Rate your level of
satisfaction from 0 to 100, 0 being no satisfaction, and 100 being total satisfaction.
What thoughts and beliefs do you have about social support?
The friend is the man who knows all about you, and still likes you. — Elbert Hubbard
Brewin, Andrews and Valentine (2000) point out that a lack of social support is one of
the most critical risk factors in individuals with PTSD. Other research has
demonstrated that the positive effect of the healing power of support systems for
people who have survived horrific events (Bloom, 2008). Seligman (2006) noted that
“people who have at least one person, whom they can call in the middle of the night to
tell their troubles to, go on to have better health than friendless people. Even ordinary
social contact is a buffer against illness. People who isolate themselves when they are
sick tend to get sicker” (p.174). Brewin, Andrews, and Valentine (2000) have
demonstrated that the greatest risk to developing PTSD after a traumatic event is the
lack of a social support system. Finally, social support has also been shown to be a
curative factor in the context of resiliency (King, King, Fairbank, Keane, & Adams,
1998; Koenen, Stellman, Stellman, & Sommer, 2003).
Consider Forrest Gump scenes of Lt. Dan: Lieutenant Dan (:26), Wounded in the
Buttocks (0:40), Happy New Year (2:04), Bubba Gump (1:44), and Beloved Mother,
Wife and Friend (6:51).
How important is social support system to you? Rate your level of agreement with this
statement from 0 to 100, 0 being total disagreement, and 100 being total agreement.
Identify thoughts and beliefs that you have about a social support system.
If we think of a social support system as a resource that is available to us, perhaps it
can be easier to understand its importance in helping us be resilient. Bonanno, Galea,
Bucciarelli, and Vlahov (2007) have explored this idea and have identified four types of
resources: 1) material resources (income); 2) energy resources (availability of health
insurance); 3) work resource (job); and 4) interpersonal (social support). For the
purposes of our discussion, their study concluded that a loss of any of these resources
increased stress and decreased resiliency.
We’ve all experienced “being alone in a crowd”. We may have people that we are very
close to and others with whom we engage in specific activities, such as playing on a
softball team, or belonging to an organization. A good support system may be a few
trusted friends or may be a variety of individuals we trust with certain aspects of our
lives (e.g., work, financial, friendship).
How comfortable are you in reaching out to others? Rate your level of comfort from 0
to 100, 0 being not at all comfortable, and 100 being totally comfortable.
What are your fears about developing a healthy support system?
Consider the fears you might have about developing a support system and how these
fear impact your ability to develop a support system. Work on the following ABC
worksheet. See Appendix D for additional worksheet.
The ABC approach considers: Adversity or Activating Event (A), Beliefs or Thoughts
(B), and Consequences or Feelings and Behaviors (C). This technique allows us to
understand situations that cause us stress. An activating event (A) can be anything. It
can be an event that makes us feel angry or happy or perhaps nothing at all. This
event then triggers beliefs (B) in us, which in turn create feelings (C).
Figure 25.2. ABC worksheet.
What did you learn from this exercise?
What steps can you take to develop a more robust social support system?
Do you believe that changing your my beliefs about social support can improve
resiliency and the quality of life. Rate your level of agreement with this statement from
0 to 100, 0 being no agreement, and 100 being total agreement.
Do you believe that you can overcome fears to develop a more effective support
system. Rate your level of agreement with this statement from 0 to 100, 0 being total
disagreement, and 100 being total agreement.
Toolbox Changing beliefs
Describe the concept of giving and receiving in a social support system.
Too often when we think about social support systems we think about what we get
from our support system. Constantly thinking like this can lead us to become self-
centered and demanding. This in turn will drive people away from us and leave us
isolated and alone – a self-fulfilling prophecy. For example … I demand that people be
a certain way … or … I require them to understand me all of the time. No one can
fulfill these demands and when our support walks away we can self-righteously
announce that we can’t count on people because … they’re never there for me. Along
with these types of negative consequences, we forget a significant part of a social
support system is what we give to people.
“Okay enough of me talking about me, what do you think of me?” — spoken by a narcissist
Recognizing that we do have a need of others is important because the process helps
us clarify our needs and select people who can meet these needs. Maintaining our
healthy support system also requires we give to the system. This requires that we
empathize, consider other people’s perspectives and take into account their wants
and needs. Examining what we bring to the table in our support system helps to see
our strengths and abilities. And, it helps us understand some of the reasons why
people want to have us in their lives.
Who are the people in my support system?
What personal characteristics do you look for in people that you would like in your
What do you need to do to improve your social support system?
What characteristics do you have that you give to the people in your support system?
How do you show the people in your support system that you care about them?
What things can you do to improve your giving to your support system?
Using Think-Aloud Pair Problem Solving (TAPPS) collaborative groups of two will
examine concepts of giving and receiving.
Do you have a better understanding of the importance of a healthy support system in
becoming more resilient? Rate your level of understanding from 0 to 100, 0 being no
understanding, and 100 being total understanding.
Identify two things you can do this week to improve your giving skills:
Identify two things you can do this week to improve your receiving skills:
Toolbox Giving and receiving
Bloom, S.L. (2008). “By the Crowd They Have Been Broken, By The Crowd They Shall
Be Healed: The Social Transformation of Trauma.” In Tedeschi, R.G., Park, C.L. and
Calhoun, L.G. (Eds.) Posttraumatic Growth: Positive changes in the Aftermath of
Crisis. Hove, East Sussex: Psychology Press.
Bonanno, G.A., Galea, S., Bucciarelli, A., and Vlahov, D. (2007). What Predicts
Psychological Resilience After Disaster? The Role of Demographic, Resources, and Life
Stress. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 75, 671-682.
Brewin, C.R., Andrews, B. and Valentine, J.D. (2000). Meta-analysis of risk factors for
post-traumatic stress disorder in trauma exposed adults. Journal of Consulting and
Clinical Psychology, 68, 748-766.
King, L.A., King, D.W., Fairbank, J.A., Keane, T.M., and Adams, G.A., (1998). Resiliency-
recovery factors in post-traumatic stress disorder among female and male Vietnam
veterans’ hardiness, post war social support, and additional stressful life events.
Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 74, 420-434.
Koenen K.C., Stellman J.M., Stellman S.D., & Sommer J.F., Jr., (2003). Risk factors for
course of posttraumatic stress disorder among Vietnam veterans: A 14-year follow-up
of American Legionnaires. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 71, 980-986.
Resick, P.A., Monson, C.M., and Chard, K.M. (2007). Cognitive Processing Therapy:
Veteran/Military Version. Washington DC: Department of Veterans Affairs.
Seligman, M.E.P. (2006). Learned Optimism: How to Change Your Mind and Your Life.
New York: Vantage Books.
- Dealing with Test Stress
Identify causes of test anxiety.
Whole Task Objective
Describe factors addressing diverse and complex issues.
White knuckles, beads of perspiration rolling down your forehead — it’s only a test.
Why does the idea of taking a test provoke so much anxiety? How does one deal with
test anxiety and the fear of failure?
The greatest test of courage on earth is to bear defeat without losing heart. –Robert Green Ingersoll
With the realization that a test is typically used to measure the success of the process
the learner uses, measure the success of the final product, or both the process and
product, a vast range of tests are possible but typically can be distinguished as those
that fall into the category of either “pencil and paper objective tests” and those that
require some sort of rubric to determine the degree to which the learner was
successful with the instruction.