Initiative Dependability and Reliability Lifelong Learning
competencies an individual’s capability to orchestrate and apply combinations of knowledge, skills, and abilities consistently over time to perform work successfully in the required work situations.
competency modeling Specifies and defines all the competencies necessary for success in a group of jobs that are set within an industry context.
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At the base of the model, Tiers 1 through 3 represent competencies that provide the foundation for success in school and in the world of work. Foundational competen- cies are essential to a large number of occupations and industries. Employers have identified a link between foundational competencies and job performance and have also discovered that foundational competencies are a prerequisite for workers to learn industry-specific skills.
The competencies shown on Tiers 4 and 5 are referred to as Industry Competencies and are specific to an industry or industry sector. Industry-wide technical competencies cut across industry subsectors making it possible to create career lattices where a worker can move easily across industry subsectors. Rather than narrowly following a single occupa- tional career ladder, this model supports the development of an agile workforce.
The competencies on Tiers 6, 7, 8, and 9 are referred to as Occupational Competencies. Occupational competency models are frequently developed to define performance in a workplace, to design competency-based curriculum, or to articulate the requirements for an occupational credential such as a license or certification.33
Figure 4-8 illustrates an example of a competency model for Solar Photovoltaic Installers who work in the renewable energy industry. The lower tiers, from personal effectiveness competencies through industry-sector technical competencies, apply to most jobs within the renewable energy industry. Hydroelectric production managers and wind engineers are exam- ples of jobs within this industry. The top tiers, in this case, management competencies and occupation-specific competencies, apply to one or more, but not all, jobs within this industry. Figure 4-8 lists sample management competencies and occupation-specific competencies for the solar photovoltaic installer job.
job Design Concepts We previously said that new jobs were being created at a rapid pace. If this is so, jobs have to be designed. job design is the process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the meth- ods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in the organization. Several concepts related to job design will be discussed next.
Summarize job design concepts.
job design Process of determining the specific tasks to be performed, the methods used in performing these tasks, and how the job relates to other work in an organization.
Tier 9 – Management Competencies Tier 8 – Occupation-Specific Requirements Tier 7 – Occupation-Specific Technical Competencies Tier 6 – Occupation-Specific Knowledge Competencies
Tier 5 – Industry-Sector Technical Competencies Tier 4 – Industry-Wide Technical Competencies
Tier 3 – Workplace Competencies Tier 2 – Academic Competencies Tier 1 – Personal Effectiveness Competencies
Figure 4-7 u.S. department of Labor competency model Source: U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, “Competency Model General Instructions,” CareerOne Stop (2014). Accessed January 5, 2014, at http://www.careeronestop. org/Competency Model/ Career Pathway/ CPWGenInstructions.aspx.
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Job Enrichment Strongly advocated by Frederick Herzberg, job enrichment consists of basic changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job so as to provide greater challenges to the worker. Job enrichment provides a vertical expansion of responsibilities.
The worker has the opportunity to derive a feeling of achievement, recognition, responsibility, and personal growth in performing the job. Although job enrichment programs do not always achieve positive results, they have often brought about improvements in job performance and in the level of worker satisfaction in many organizations. Today, job enrichment is moving toward the team level, as more teams become autonomous, or self-managed.
Job Enlargement There is a clear distinction between job enrichment and job enlargement. job enlargement is defined as increasing the number of tasks a worker performs, with all of the tasks at the same level of responsibility.
Job enlargement, sometimes called cross-training, involves providing greater variety to the worker. For example, instead of knowing how to operate only one machine, a person is taught to operate two or even three, but no higher level of responsibility is required. Workers with broad skills may become increasingly important as fewer workers are needed because of tight budgets. Some employers have found that providing job enlargement opportunities improves employee engagement and prevents stagnation.34
Job Rotation job rotation (cross-training) moves employees from one job to another to broaden their experi- ence. Higher-level tasks often require this breadth of knowledge. Rotational training programs help employees understand a variety of jobs and their interrelationships, thereby improving
job enrichment Changes in the content and level of responsibility of a job so as to provide greater challenges to the worker.
job enlargement Increasing the number of tasks a worker performs, with all of the tasks at the same level of responsibility.
job rotation Moves workers from one job to another to broaden their experience.
Personal Effectiveness Competencies
Initiative Dependability & Reliability Lifelong Learning
Teamwork Business Funda- mentals
Fundamentals of Energy and Power
Biomass Solar Wind
Industry-Sector Technical Competencies
Geothermal Water Fuel Cells and
Industry-Wide Technical Competencies Quality Assurance
Policies, Laws and
Health, Safety, and
Mathematics Reading Writing Communication-
Listening & Speaking
Critical & Analytic Thinking
Checking, Examining &
Tools & Technology
Problem Solving & Decision Making
Marketing & Customer
Monitor Processes, Materials, or Surroundings
Organizing, Planning, and Prioritizing Work
Identify installation locations with proper orientation, area,
solar access, or structural integrity for photovoltaic (PV) arrays.
Install photovoltaic (PV) systems in accordance with codes and
standards using drawings, schematics, and instructions.
Figure 4-8 renewable energy industry competency model Source: U.S. Department of Labor Employment and Training Administration, “Renewable Energy,” CareerOneStop (2014). Accessed January 5, 2014, at http://www.careeronestop.org/ CompetencyModel/pyramid. aspx?RE=Y.
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productivity. Job rotation is often used by organizations to relieve boredom, stimulate better performance, reduce absenteeism, and provide additional flexibility in job assignments. Also if the task to be accomplished is boring or distasteful, job rotation means that one person will not be stuck with it for all times.35 Individuals who know how to accomplish more than one task are more valuable both to themselves and to the firm. Staffing then becomes more flexible and these multiskilled workers are then more insulated from layoffs.36 If job rotation is to be effective, management must be sure to provide sufficient training so that each individual in the rotation can perform the task in a similar manner.37
Reengineering reengineering is “the fundamental rethinking and radical redesign of business processes to achieve dramatic improvements in critical contemporary measures of performance, such as cost, quality, service, and speed.”38
Reengineering essentially involves the firm rethinking and redesigning its business system to become more competitive. It emphasizes the radical redesign of work in which companies organizes around process instead of by functional departments. Incremental change is not what is desired; instead, deep-seated changes are wanted that will alter entire operations at one time. Essentially, the firm must rethink and redesign its business system from the ground up.
Reengineering focuses on the overall aspects of job designs, organizational structures, and management systems. It stresses that work should be organized around outcomes as opposed to tasks or functions. Reengineering should never be confused with downsizing even though a workforce reduction often results from this strategy. Naturally, job design considerations are of paramount concern because as the process changes, so do essential elements of jobs. Through an initiative called Project Accelerate, Family Dollar reengineered its merchandising and supply chain processes to enable better performance by store teams. In doing so, it produced a new store layout that is easier and more convenient to shop.39
LG Electronics provides another example of how reengineering can work. LG management previously let each division deal with suppliers. That meant a procurement manager in Seoul did not know how much his counterpart at a flat-screen TV factory in Mexico paid for chips from the same company. Then Chief Executive Nam Yong decided to reengineer and rethink the company where managers seldom shared information. Today no one at LG can issue a purchase order without clearance from procurement engineering. By centralizing purchases, LG has cut more than $2 billion from its annual $30 billion purchases.40
Global talent Management talent management is a strategic endeavor to optimize the use of human capital, which enables an organization to drive short- and long-term results by building culture, engagement, capability, and capacity through integrated talent acquisition, development, and deployment processes that are aligned to business goals. Roger Cude, senior vice president of global talent management at Walmart Stores Inc., said through talent management, “Our leaders know what they’re getting reviewed on and how they’re getting calibrated on what’s important but also where the business is heading.”41 Six key components of talent management include recruitment, compensation and rewards, performance management, succession management, engagement and retention, and leadership development.42 Talent management attempts to ensure that the right person is in the right job at the right time. A fully integrated talent management system helps answer many ques- tions that a CEO may ask, such as “Do I have the executive talent to lead an initiative?” or “How long before we have enough knowledge and skills within the organization for the initiative to take hold?” CEOs want assurance that they have the workers available to achieve their business goals, both now and in the future.43 A recent study found that high-performing organizations tend to integrate talent management components more than low-performing organizations.44 Companies such as GE, Unilever, PepsiCo, and Shell are known for their painstaking attention to talent management. But these companies are typically not the norm.45
Heath Williams, Plateau Systems’ vice president, international sales, said, “Good talent management systems start with careful analysis not just of HR functions, but of the organization itself, including existing processes, long and short-term goals, the organization’s competitive