Organizational Change and Leading Change
Table 0.1 Where to read about individual, team, organizational change and leading change
The later chapters take real change situations and give specific tips and guidelines on how to tackle these successfully from a leadership point of view.
OVERVIEW OF STRUCTURE
We have structured the book principally in three parts. Part One, ‘The underpinning theory’, comprises four chapters and
aims to set out a wide range of ideas and approaches to managing change. Chapter 1 draws together the key theories of how individuals go through change. Chapter 2 compares different types of team, and exam- ines the process of team development and also the way in which different types of team contribute to the organizational change process. Chapter 3 looks at a wide range of approaches to organizational change, using orga- nizational metaphor to show how these are interconnected and related. Chapter 4 examines leadership of change, the role of visionary leadership, the roles that leaders play in the change process and the competencies that a leader needs to become a successful leader of change.
These chapters enable the reader to develop a broader understanding of the theoretical aspects of individual, team and organizational change, and to learn more about a variety of perspectives on how best to be a leader of change. This lays firm foundations for anyone wanting to learn about new approaches to managing change with a view to becoming more skilled in this area.
Part Two, ‘The applications’, focuses on specific change scenarios with a view to giving guidelines, hints and tips to those involved in these different types of change process. These chapters are illustrated with case studies and make reference to the models and methods discussed in Part One. Chapter 5 looks at organizational restructuring, why it goes wrong, and how to get it right. Chapter 6 tackles mergers and acquisitions by categorizing the different types of activity and examining the learning points resulting from research into this area. Chapter 7 examines cultural change by describing some diverse case studies and extracting the learning points, and Chapter 8 attempts to shed some light on IT-based process change, why it so often goes awry and what organizations can do to improve on this.
Part Three is a new section that we have included for the second edition. One of the clear things that has emerged for us in helping others lead and
manage change is the tension between overly planning and controlling change on the one hand, and the fact that change is often not simple enough to plan or control on the other. Chapter 9 looks at the whole area of complexity science and how it can inform your approach when managing complex change. Chapter 10 looks at how and why many change efforts fail to deliver all that they set out to do. In this chapter we ask the question ‘Is there one right way of managing change?’ and (without giving anything away right now) if not, explores how we can approach change at least with some confidence in managing it successfully.
Please do not read this book from beginning to end in one sitting. It is too much to take in. We recommend that if you prefer a purely pragmatic approach you should start by reading Part Two. You will find concrete examples and helpful guidelines. After that, you might like to go back into the theory in Part One to understand the choices available to you as a leader of change.
Likewise, if you are more interested in understanding the theoretical underpinning of change, then read Part One first. You will find a range of approaches together with their associated theories of change. After that, you might like to read Part Two to find out how the theory can be applied in real situations.
MESSAGE TO READERS
We wish you well in all your endeavours to initiate, adapt to and survive change. We hope the book provides you with some useful ideas and insights, and we look forward to hearing about your models, approaches and experiences, and to your thoughts on the glaring gaps in this book. We are sure we have left lots of important things out!
Do e-mail us with your comments and ideas, or visit us at:
Esther – Website: www.cameronchange.co.uk E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Mike – Website: www.transitionalspace.co.uk E-mail: email@example.com
Making sense of change management
The underpinning theory
All appears to change when we change. Henri Amiel
Individual change is at the heart of everything that is achieved in organiza- tions. Once individuals have the motivation to do something different, the whole world can begin to change. The conspiracy laws in the UK recognize this capacity for big change to start small. In some legal cases, the merest nod or a wink between two people seems to be considered adequate evidence to indicate a conspiratorial act. In some respects this type of law indicates the incredible power that individuals have within them to chal- lenge existing power strongholds and alter the way things are done.
However, individuals are to some extent governed by the norms of the groups they belong to, and groups are bound together in a whole system of groups of people that interconnect in various habitual ways. So the story is not always that simple. Individuals, teams and organizations all play a part in the process of change, and leaders have a particularly onerous responsibility: that is, making all this happen.
We divided this book into three parts so that readers could have the option either to start their journey through this book by first reading about the theory of change, or to begin by reading about the practical applications. The third part looks at managing complex change and whether there is one right way of managing change. We understand that people have different preferences. However, we do think that a thorough grounding in the theory is useful to help each person to untangle and articulate his or her own assumptions about how organizations work, and how change occurs. Do you for instance think that organizations can be changed by those in leadership positions to reach a predetermined end state, or do you think that people in organizations need to be collectively aware of the need for change before they can begin to adapt? Assumptions can be dangerous things when not explored, as they can restrict your thinking and narrow down your options.
Part One comprises four chapters. These have been chosen to represent four useful perspectives on change: individual change, team change, organizational change and leading change. Chapter 1 draws together the four key approaches to understanding individual change. These are the behavioural, cognitive, psychodynamic and humanistic psychology approaches. This chapter also looks at the connection between person- ality and change, and how to enable change in others when you are acting in a managerial role.
Chapter 2 identifies the main elements of team and group theory that we believe are useful to understand when managing change. This chapter compares different types of team, looks at the area of team effec- tiveness, and examines the process of team development. The composi- tion of the team and the effect this has on team performance are also examined, as well as the way in which different types of team contribute to the organizational change process.
Chapter 3 looks at a wide range of approaches to organizational change, using organizational metaphor to show how these are intercon- nected and related. Familiar and unfamiliar models of the change process are described and categorized by metaphor to enable the underpinning assumptions to be examined, and we give our views on how useful these various models are to leaders of change.
Chapter 4 examines the leadership of change. We start by looking at the variety of leadership roles that arise from using different assumptions about how organizations work. The need for visionary leadership, the
The underpinning theory
characteristics of successful leaders and some thoughts on the need for a different sort of leadership in the 21st century are all aired. The chapter also examines how communities of leaders can work together to make change happen, and what styles and skills are required of a leader, including the need for emotional competencies. The phases of a change process are looked at in order to illuminate the need for different leader- ship actions and attention during the different phases of change, and the importance of self-knowledge and self-awareness is highlighted.