Philosophy Influence on Curriculum Essay Paper
Choose one of the educational philosophies and develop an article critique on its implications in curriculum development. Format and Rubric included.
1). Perennialism; its philosophical base is realism.
2). Essentialism; its philosophical base idealism and realism.
3). Progressivism; its philosophical pragmatism.
4). Reconstructionism; its philosophical pragmatism.
Curriculum development is heavily influenced by philosophy, those involved in such planning should be clear on its philosophy. If its philosophy is not clear, curriculum plans and teaching procedures will be inconsistent and confusing. One personal educational philosophy of education is a crucial professional responsibility. Thus, educators must be open to new ideas that may lead to a revision or refinement of our philosophies. In the end, our philosophy needs to be politically and economically feasible and that serves the needs of students and society.
These four educational philosophies are derivative from the roots of idealism, realism, pragmatism, and existentialism. These philosophies have influenced curriculum development.
Perennialism draws heavily on subject-centered disciplines or logically organized bodies of content that emphasize the teaching and learning of languages, literature, sciences, and arts. There is one common curriculum that all students must learn with little room for electives.
Progressivism advocates against perennial thinking in education. It was considered a contemporary reformist movement in educational, social, and political affairs. Progressivists believe the skills and tools of learning include problem-solving and scientific inquiry with learning experiences that include cooperative learning with self-discipline, which is viewed as necessary for democratic living.
Essentialism is rooted partly in idealism and realism, which evolved as a critique of progressivism. Although many essentialists do not object to progressivism methods, they do believe education should prepare students to adjust to a changing society. However, they believe learning should consist in mastering subject matter that reflects knowledge in various disciplines. The philosophy is noted for widespread implementation of competency-based programs, grade-level achievement standards, and the movement of reemphasizing academic subjects.
Reconstructionists believe schools and colleges shape the attitudes and values of each generation. As a result, students become adults with shared values which will reshape society. Its curriculum pushes social, economic, and political education. The subject matter is to be used as a vehicle for studying social problems which must serve as the focus of the curriculum.
These educational philosophies are deeply rooted throughout the history of curriculum development, and they will continue to be, besides societal needs.
Moreover, let’s explore the major contributions of several educational philosophers and theorists to curriculum development which has shaped teaching and learning in American schools. Those philosophers are Hollis Caldwell, Ralph Tyler, Franklin Bobbit, Werret Charters, William Kilpatrick, and Harold Rugg. Attached is an overview of their views on curriculum development and well-known work.