Senate and of the House of Representatives
Dec 5, 1848
Fellow-Citizens of the Senate and of the House of Representatives:
Since the exchange of ratifications of the treaty of peace with Mexico our intercourse with the Government of that Republic has been of the friendliest character…New Mexico and Upper California have been acquired by treaty. Upper California, irrespective of the vast mineral wealth recently developed there, holds at this day, in point of value and importance, to the rest of the Union the same relation that Louisiana did when that fine territory was acquired from France forty-five years ago. Extending nearly ten degrees of latitude along the Pacific, and embracing the only safe and commodious harbors on that coast for many hundred miles it is scarcely possible to estimate its wealth until it shall be brought under the government of our laws and its resources fully developed.
From its position it must command the rich commerce of China, of Asia, of the islands of the Pacific, of western Mexico, of Central America, the South American States, and of the Russian possessions bordering on that ocean. A great emporium will doubtless speedily arise on the Californian coast which may be destined to rival in importance New Orleans itself. It was known that mines of the precious metals existed to a considerable extent in California at the time of its acquisition.
Recent discoveries render it probable that these mines are more extensive and valuable than was anticipated. . the officer commanding our forces in California visited the mineral district in July last for the purpose of obtaining accurate information on the subject. His report to the War Department of the result of his examination and the facts obtained on the spot is herewith laid before Congress. When he visited the country there were about 4,000 persons engaged in collecting gold.
The effects produced by the discovery of these rich mineral deposits and the success which has attended the labors of those who have resorted to them have produced a surprising change in the state of affairs in California. Labor commands a most exorbitant price, and all other pursuits but that of searching for the precious metals are abandoned. Nearly the whole of the male population of the country have gone to the gold districts. Ships arriving on the coast are deserted by their crews and their voyages suspended for want of sailors. Our commanding officer there entertains apprehensions that soldiers cannot be kept in the public service without a large increase of pay.
Desertions in his command have become frequent, and he recommends that those who shall withstand the strong temptation and remain faithful should be rewarded. This abundance of gold and the all-engrossing pursuit of it have already caused in California an unprecedented rise in the price of all the necessaries of life.
note: this is just a discussion questions, pretend you’re a student and discuss as your feeling. doesn’t have to be a fancy answer in paragraph.