What Is the Concept of Integrative Theories?
Using a character in Twelve Angry Men, and issues of the reading, such as the role of
culture, individual differences, context, and the follower, affect the leader’s ability to
influence others? Comment in 200 to 400 words.
Whole Task Objectives Follow-up
How would you relate the concept of integrative strategies to diverse and complex
issues in leadership?
Toolbox Integrative Strategies
Avolio, B. J. (2007). Promoting more integrative strategies for leadership theory-
building. American Psychologist, 62, 25–33.
Bennis, W. G., & Thomas, R. J. (2002). Geeks & geezers: How era, values, and defining
moments shape leaders. Boston, Massachusetts: Harvard Business School Press.
Dash, D. P. (2005). Logic of leadership research: A reflective review of Geeks & Geezers
by Bennis and Thomas. Journal of Research Practice, (1), Article R1. Retrieved March
8, 2009 from http://jrp.icaap.org/index.php/jrp/article/view/2/4
Vroom, V. H., & Jago, A. G. (2007). The role of the situation in leadership. American
Psychologist, 62, 17–24.
Zaccaro, S. J. (2007). Trait-based perspectives of leadership. American Psychologist, 62,
- Communication and Resilience
Address any issues from prior session.
Describe issues related to listening, empathy and communication.
The objective is the learning intent of this session. As you read this objective and
participate in the activities that follow, attempt to relate this objective to the current
activity and the broader concept presented as the Whole Task Objective. The Whole
Task Objective typically span three sessions with each of the three sessions
contributing to your overall understanding of the Whole Task Objective.
Whole Task Objective
Understand the concept of communication.
Human beings are herd animals. We have evolved that way for our mutual survival.
We could not have survived alone against saber-toothed tigers or grizzly bears. All
humans need to belong to a tribe, a group, a family, a squad, a community. It is
sometimes tempting to say that we would like to be left alone, but the fact is for most
of us we would soon long for human contact. Learning to live successfully in a group
can be challenging and requires a great deal of patience and resilience. Learning how
to communicate effectively is imperative in becoming resilient. Learning the skills to
allow ourselves to get close to others is also important in becoming more resilient.
Most conversations are simply monologues delivered in the presence of a witness. — Margaret Millar
What are your thoughts about listening to others and being listened to? Are these
things that you desire?
What skills do you think you need to improve closeness in your relationships?
How much do you want to have close relationships in your life?
How effective of a listener are you?
What skills do you think you need to improve communication in your relationships?
One of most important aspects of communicating effectively is the ability to
empathize with the individual or people that we are communicating with. To
empathize is not to necessarily agree with the other person’s point of view, but is an
effort to understand their perspective. We also need to remember that we don’t like it
when other people put stress on us, so we can endeavor to not put stress on them.
It is also important to understand the elements of communication. It has been argued
that eighty percent of human communication is non-verbal. Most of our
communication is made up of body language, voice tone, facial expressions, and
whether we make eye contact or not. The actual words are probably the least
important. A graduate school classmate used to demonstrate this by talking with his
dog. He would say the foulest things to his beloved pet, but in the sweetest voice and
open body language. Harry would sit wagging his tail in sheer delight. He could also
say the kindest words, but in an angry tone and the dog would retreat to his bed.
Therefore to become effective communicators we need to learn to look at someone’s
non-verbal behavior, as well as our own. Sometimes we can communicate the wrong
message by our body language. There are also times when we can be reacting to non-
verbal cues and are not really hearing the words.
Case Study. Two colleagues were discussing a patient at the VA and both had a
different perspective of what was going on with this veteran. Early in the discussion,
everything was amiable and collegial. Each was listening to the other. However, one
of the people crossed his arms and began to puff up his chest as he was making a
point. Almost immediately the other person began to talk louder and more
argumentatively and the situation ended with both of them walking away saying how
stupid they thought the other was. When asked later, both recalled the one person
“puffing up” as the point where the discussion turned into an argument. It was not
the words, but the behavior that changed the tone.
If we can monitor our reactions to other people’s non-verbal behaviors, then we can
improve the accuracy in our own thinking, which is one of the marks of a resilient
It has also been demonstrated that men and women communicate for different
reasons. Men, for the most part, communicate to impart information and to solve
problems. Women, on the other hand, communicate primarily to connect with other
people. Not understanding this difference leads to a lot of stress and conflict in
marriages. A husband may complain that his wife is nagging him with questions, but
her efforts are really an attempt to connect with him. Another example is a wife comes
to her husband with a problem that she wants to share with him. She is more than
capable of solving the problem herself, but the husband “hears” this as a problem for
him to solve. As a consequence, he interrupts his wife, offers his solution and goes on
about his business, feeling good about how smart he was at fixing the problem. He
then is baffled by his wife’s cold silence. Why would she react this way when he had
come up with such a brilliant solution? Her need was to connect with him, not have
him solve her problem.
It is also important to learn how to listen. It has been said that the reason God gave us
two ears and one mouth is that He intended for us to listen twice as much as we talk.
Men, unfortunately, are not always the best listeners and in conversation will interrupt
far more often than women (Tannen, 2001). We all have a need to be listened to.
What is your reaction to people when you think they aren’t listening to you?
What do you think their reaction to you is when you aren’t listening to them?
You have just been able feel empathy for another person about not being listened to.
We have all been in situations where we were listening to someone and we only heard
the first two sentences of what they were saying and then we started to think of our
response to what they were saying; not really listening to all of what they had to say.
We have also been on the receiving end of this kind of communication, where you can
see (non-verbal behavior like eyes looking away from you) that they are no longer
listening to you.
When you become aware of that, what are your first thought, first feeling, and first
Do you think others may think, feel and act the same when you do it to them?
Listening is a skill that can be learned. If I want to be listened to, I must also learn how
to listen. Effective listeners make the best communicators because they are aware of
what their audience wants and needs from them. They have heard it; not just the
words, but the message behind the words.